Peruvian History, decisive dates

Peruvian History, decisive dates

by Abraham Nowitz

Guerreros mochicas y foráneos
Dibujo que representa un enfrentamiento entre guerreros mochi­cas y guerreros foráneos. Se pueden diferenciar los atuen­dos, las armas e incluso la forma de pelear.
MALI

10000–3000 BC

Human settlement, based on marine resources and rudimentary floodplain agri- culture, appears on the Peruvian coast.

Cotton Preceramic

Period  3000–1800 BC

First known urban settlement of the Americas established on the coast at Caral. Simple cotton textiles appear.

Initial Period

1800–800 BC

Irrigation agriculture appears on the coast, together with maize cultivation and pot- tery. Settlements move inland to control supply of water.

Early Horizon Period

800–300 BC

Chavín culture rises on strategic trans-Andean trade route. Innovations in textiles, metallurgy, and stone carving appear.

Early Intermediate Period

300 BC–AD 600

Nazca and Moche cultures flourish on the south and north coasts, developing distinctive ceramic styles. The Nazca lines are drawn on the southern desert and the Moche build huge adobe pyramids. El Niño weather events provoke collapse of the Moche civilization.

Middle Horizon Period

AD 600–1000

Wari people initiate terrace agriculture in the central highlands, and the Tihuanaco develop intensive raised-field cultivation on the shores of Lake Titicaca. The Sicán culture thrives in the Lambayeque Valley, producing superb gold, silver, and cop- per objects.

Late Intermediate Period

c.1000–1470

Numerous regional cultures emerge; most important are the Chimú, the Chachapoyas, the Ica, the Huanca, and the Incas. The Chachapoyas people build the huge walled citadel of Kuélap; successive kings of Chimú build the adobe city of Chan Chan, the capital until the Inca conquest.

The Inca Empire

1438–1533

According to later Inca mytho-history, Pachacutec launches an imperial expansion across a vast swathe of the Andes. The Incas absorb the crafts and technologies of assimilated peoples, and deploy their own genius for agricultural engineering, architecture, and large-scale organization.

1527–32

The death of Huayna Capac leaves the empire divided between his sons, Huascar and Atahualpa. Civil war erupts, and Atahualpa emerges victorious.

The Spanish Conquest

1532

Spanish conquistadors arrive in Tumbes and march to meet Atahualpa at Caja- marca. The Inca emperor is tricked and captured, and offers a huge ransom in ex- change for his life.

1533

The Spaniards execute Atahualpa, then march on Cusco and loot the city’s trea- sures. Manco, another son of Huayna Capac, is installed as puppet ruler.

1535

Francisco Pizarro founds Lima, which will later become the seat of the Spanish Viceroyalty.

1536

Manco rebels against the Spanish, but is defeated at Sacsayhuamán. The following year he retreats to Vilcabamba.

1538

Diego de Almagro, Pizarro’s original partner, leads an opposing faction. Civil war breaks out. Almagro is defeated and garroted.

1541

Pizarro is assassinated by Almagro supporters.

1544

Manco is murdered by Almagrist allies at Vitcos.

1570s

Viceroy Francisco de Toledo invades Vilcabamba and executes Manco’s son, Tupac Amaru, ending Inca resistance. Toledo establishes reducciones, the forced resettlement of native populations, formalizes the encomienda system, whereby Indians provide tribute to their Spanish masters, and co-opts the mita, an Inca taxation-through-labor system.

Early 1600s

A Catholic campaign to stamp out native religions results in many indigenous be- liefs and rites being given a Christian veneer.

1700–13

The War of the Spanish Succession in Europe sees the Habsburg dynasty replaced by the Bourbons, who try to improve the economy and reduce corruption.

1759

Charles III ascends the throne of Spain and opens up trade in Peru.

1767

The powerful Jesuit Order, influential in securing fairer treatment of natives, is ex- pelled from the New World.

1780

Indigenous rebellion against the Spanish led by José Gabriel Condorcanqui, known as Tupac Amaru II, who is defeated and executed in 1781.

1784–90

Viceroy Teodoro de Croix institutes reforms, setting up a court to deal with indige- nous claims.

1814

An indigenous uprising led by Mateo García Pumacahua captures Arequipa and wins Creole support before being put down by royalist troops.

1820

After liberating Chile, the Argentinian General José de San Martín invades Peru, helped by the recently formed Chilean navy under British command.

Modern History

1821

San Martín enters Lima and proclaims Peruvian independence on July 28, although royalists still control most of Peru.

1824

Independence armies headed by General José de Sucre crush royalist forces at the Battle of Ayacucho.

1824–6

Bolívar presidency, after which a period of turmoil ensues, with 35 presidents in 40 years.

1840

First guano and nitrate fertilizer contracts with Britain, which come to control Pe- ru’s economy.

1851

Lima–Callao railroad inaugurated.

1854

President Ramón Castilla abolishes slavery and “Indian tribute” taxation.

1866

Spain attacks the port of Callao, failing in a last desperate bid to recover her strate- gic colony.

1869

Spain recognizes Peruvian independence.

1877

Foreign debts bankrupt Peru.

1879

War of the Pacific over nitrate deposits in southern Tarapacá province begins.

1880

Chile occupies the provinces of Tacna, Arica, and Tarapacá.

1881

Chileans sack Lima and occupy Peru.

1883

Treaty of Ancón cedes Arica and Tarapacá to Chile.

1911

Hiram Bingham announces discovery of Machu Picchu.

1924

Exiled Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre founds Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Amer- icana (APRA).

1931

Haya de la Torre is allowed back to Peru to contest elections, but is defeated. Numerous apristas are killed in the subsequent uprising.

1941–2

Border war with Ecuador ends in victory for Peru, cementing its control over the Upper Amazon.

1948

Military coup brings General Manuel Odría to power.

1962

Another military coup heads off probable APRA election victory.

1963–8

President Fernando Belaúnde initiates modest land reform, but is swept from power in another military coup.

1968

General Juan Velasco introduces land reforms and nationalization. Quechua is recognized as the second language.

1970

Massive earthquake strikes northern Peru, killing 75,000–80,000 people.

1972

Second major El Niño event of the 20th century.

1975

Centrist policies follow a palace coup by General Francisco Morales Bermúdez, but economic woes pile up.

1980

Belaúnde returns to power in democratic elections. Terrorist organization Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) becomes a serious threat.

1983

Third major El Niño event causes disastrous flooding.

1985

APRA takes power for the first time, under youngest-ever president Alán García. His policies cause hyperinflation, shortages, and chaos, while nationwide terrorist violence spirals out of control.

1990

Unknown Alberto Fujimori defeats novelist Mario Vargas Llosa to win presidency.

1992

Fujimori suspends Congress and Constitution and introduces tough economic and anti-terrorist measures. Sendero Luminoso leader Abimael Guzmán is cap- tured.

1995

Border clashes lead to major military conflict with Ecuador, ending in ceasefire. Fujimori is re-elected, and his supporters gain a majority in Congress.

1996–7

Members of armed Tupac Amaru hostage-taking group killed after four-month siege at Japanese ambassador’s residence. All but one of 72 hostages survive.

1998

Peace treaty with Ecuador leads to final settlement of border dispute.

2000

Fujimori wins third term amidst widespread charges of vote-rigging. Leaked videos of high-level bribery trigger mass protests. Fujimori flees to Japan and faxes his resignation.

2001

Outsider politician Alejandro Toledo wins elections and takes office as first elected indigenous president of Peru. His term is marred by strikes, protests, and the rise commodities, and vigorous economic growth.

2006

Alán García achieves political resurrection, claiming to have learned from disas- trous mistakes in the 1980s and promising economic stability; he narrowly wins a second term.

2007

Ex-president Fujimori is extradited from Chile. Sentenced in Lima, he receives six years in prison for abuse of power and faces more serious human rights charges. In August an 8.0-magnitude earthquake hits the coastal region of Ica, killing more than 500 people.

2009

Fast economic growth brings only limited benefits to the poor. Protests in Bagua province lead to around 50 deaths.

2011

Leftwing nationalist Ollanta Humala wins the presidency but leaves market-friendly economic policy intact.

2016

Liberal economist Pedro Pablo Kuczynski wins the presidency

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